How to deliver effective training with 2 comprehensive models

Effective training

Producing effective training is much more complicated than it looks. Once you have established and understood producing your client’s needs, could you develop the design and training? You will primarily focus on how to transmit the knowledge to boost engagement. Also, you will have to ensure that the participants practise and use the new skills on the job. You must develop a Training Evaluation Strategy from the first step until the end. 

Main learning barriers

Dr Ethan Honary, in his book Train the Trainer, clearly described the barriers to learning. 

Learners are Not Fully Committed

Learners may not understand why they need to learn something and forget it soon. You may teach them something they don’t care about if you don’t assess learners’ current knowledge at the start of the course. This lack of dedication would quickly become a roadblock to learning. Engagement (Kirkpatrick – level 1) is essential as it will facilitate the learning process. 

Learners fall back to old habits. 

Learners risk reverting to harmful old habits if you do not evaluate the training once they have completed it. It corresponds to Kirkpatrick – level 2. Learners Cannot Immediately Practice the acquired skills.

If you do not expose participants to the subject matter after the course, they will likely forget the skills and be unable to apply them in real-life situations. It corresponds to Kirkpatrick – level 3.

“Perhaps one of the biggest misconceptions is that managers who send their staff to training think that once a training course is finished, the training is completed.”

Dr Ethan Honary

Old habits are difficult to break. You will need persistence and time. You need to plan time to allow the learners to see how they can implement the teachings in real-world settings. If no time is allowed after the course for reflection on the training, it will be a waste of money, time, and effort because the participants will not achieve the expected outcomes. As a result, planning post-course activities as part of a continuous training solution is critical.

Learners Do Not Feel Comfortable in the Learning Environment 

Making mistakes is a necessary part of learning. The participants learn from their mistakes in the learning environment, which includes you as the training facilitator. 

Transmission of knowledge. A person’s extensive understanding of a subject does not always imply that they can teach it as well. Consider the professors or lecturers you had in school. Have you ever had a speaker whose reputation preceded him in a field but whose instruction disappointed you when you attended his class? His teaching technique, not his knowledge, was the issue. Being able to train others on a topic is not the same as being educated about that issue.

Internal Training
Dogbert’s Sensitivity Training – Dilbert by Adams

How to create an effective training program

Over the years, training methodology experts have established several suggestions that might help to get more effective training. Didactic Principles are a handy set of these rules. (Cawood, Muller & Swartz, 1982).

Make training effective
Train the trainer: the art of training delivery
  • Purposefulness. Please let the participants know the goals of the training. When participants know the targets, they may work hard to achieve them.
  • Motivation. You’ll need to deliver the training to participants and pique their interest in the subject.
  • Individualisation. People are unique, and we should treat them as such throughout the process. You must understand that everyone’s intellectual and learning abilities are unique.
  • Socialisation. Humans are social creatures, and learning is far more successful in a pleasant social setting.
  • Participation. You must encourage learners to participate physically and emotionally in the learning process.
  • 360  experience. A trainer’s goal should be to engage all learners’ senses. When physical mobility is essential, do physical workouts.
  • As one, the many components of a training course must work together consistently.
  • Practice. You must allow the learner to master the skill in a realistic environment to determine whether or not participants progress.
  • Assessment and Evaluation. You must assess the outcome of a training course to see if you and the participants met the objectives.

We will explore two methods, ADDIE  and the 4C, to help do effective training. 


The Addie model (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation) is a strategy for organising and streamlining course content creation. Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation are the acronyms for the five stages of the development process. To have effective training, each step of the ADDIE model must be completed in the specified sequence, focusing on reflection and iteration. The methodology provides a streamlined, targeted approach with feedback for ongoing improvement.


During this stage, designers explain the expectation—what commercial result does the company need to achieve? You must begin the evaluation process at the Analysis step to be genuinely effective.

The New World Kirkpatrick Model places a premium on determining outcomes (Level 4) early on. Use the return on stakeholder expectations (ROE) to assess the worth of a program or project. L&D experts must ask questions to explain and refine the expectations of key business stakeholders to identify precise measures. These questions include:

  • The qualifications do your staff need?
  • What are the responsibilities of employees on the job?
  • What will motivate people to act in such a manner?
  • The desired consequences for your company if these scenarios happen?

You should be able to produce an analysis of training requirements as well as a training plan.


Designers define objectives, construct evaluation techniques, develop assessment instruments, decide on media, and address other delivery issues during this phase. Supervisors and senior leaders focus on the training department’s agreed needs to ensure that the program achieves the intended return on stakeholder expectations. To create a successful design, you must continue the review process during the design phase. You should have an overview of the course design and storyboards/prototypes at the end.


The development of learning and performance activities and resources and the instruction definition occur during this phase. Also developed or integrated is technology. In the development phase, everything comes together. Along with the program materials, you have to establish tools for evaluation. Course Content is what you should produce.


This phase includes the delivery of the learning and development, whether in an instructor-led virtual or traditional session or an asynchronous session. You can obtain feedback and data on an ongoing basis to make adjustments before it is too late. You should come out with: Your courses are live, and learners can start to take and complete courses.


Evaluation is frequently considered the last stage, although it begins the ADDIE process and is included in every phase. Throughout the first four phases, this phase is ongoing. If you’ve followed the ADDIE approach, evaluation becomes a placeholder at this point. It serves as a reminder that the job is only done if you show that the effort meets your expectations. You’ll need to talk with supervisors and keep track of the latest developments. The E doesn’t simply belong at the finish; it belongs throughout the entire process. You should come up with a report on the evaluation and improvements.

Training from the BACK of the Room!

The 4Cs (Connections, Concepts, Concept practice and Conclusions) instruction design and delivery process, created by Sharon L. Bowman, has roots in educational and psychological research from the latter half of the twentieth century. The availability of new research on learning styles, learning modalities, and multiple intelligences, as well as recent discoveries in the field of neuroscience, have all contributed to an approach to teaching and training that we now call Accelerated Learning (AL). AL’s basic tenets are as follows:

Effective training
TBR by Shanon Bowman
  • You have to involve in learning both the intellect and the body.
  • Learning is fundamentally a creative act, not a process of consuming information.
  • Collaboration boosts learning, whereas solitude and competitiveness stifle it.
  • With time for reflection and criticism, active acting, rather than passive listening, is how people learn.
  • Learning is aided by positive emotions and mental imagery. A lack of both hampers learning.


It is the first step to getting effective training. It might also include time spent getting ready for the workout. During the Connections step, learners build links with what they already know or think they know about the training topic. They also connect with the other learners in the training group and with you, the trainer, about what they will learn or want to learn.


This element of training involves direct instruction, lectures, or presentations. During the Concepts step, learners absorb new material in various ways, including listening, seeing, talking, writing, reflecting, envisioning, and teaching it to others.

Concrete Practice

This is the active review that usually follows the distribution of information. Learners actively practise a new skill using the latest information during the Concrete Practice step, actively review what they have learned, and teach others what they know or can accomplish.


This is where the training comes to a close. It can also include time spent after training. Learners review what they’ve learned, evaluate it, commit to use it at work or in their lives, and close with a brief celebration of their learning experience at the Conclusions stage.

For more information on designing effective training, read the fantastic book of Sharon L. Bowman,  Training From the Back of the Room!


Even if it is requested or budgeted, training professionals should evaluate the purpose of any training. A discussion should happen on the exact result the course should assist with and what the targeted group must do to achieve. You must show that effective training can positively impact the bottom line and contributes to the mission’s success. Remember these elements to design practical training:

  • Provide opportunities for people to learn from one another.
  • Set tasks for groups rather than individuals.
  • Provide psychological safety
  • Allow time and space for peer discussion.
  • Make resources available for people to learn on their own.
  • Allow employees to study at their own pace.

If you have questions or need support, do not hesitate to ask. David Gousset.

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